There are numerous risk factors that can make injuries more likely when children are being born. It is very important for hospital workers and staff members to know what these risk factors are so that they can take the proper steps to keep these vulnerable children safe.
For instance, one of the more common risk factors is a high birth weight. This is why the doctor monitors the baby's weight so carefully throughout the pregnancy. While the readings may not be 100% accurate, they can help the staff know if a baby is going to be bigger (or smaller) than average when the mother goes into labor.
Prolonged labor is also a common risk factor. In many cases, when it is taking too long, the risk to both the baby and the mother increases dramatically. This is why doctors will sometimes order an emergency cesarean section. They just know that it has taken too long, and the baby needs to be born quickly. The staff must understand when the risk is rising and when it is the right time to take emergency action.
This does not mean that the staff can control all of the things that happen during a birth. They can't control the baby's weight, whether the mother takes an abnormal amount of time to have the baby or the shape of the mother's pelvis -- another risk factor that can increase the odds of a birth injury.
But proper care is not about controlling these factors. It's about responding properly when they present themselves. If the workers are negligent and do not offer proper care, that's when families may need to know their legal options.